Lesbian feminism | Wikipedia audio article


lesbian feminism as a cultural movement and critical perspective most influential in the 1970s and early 1980s primarily in North America and Western Europe that encourages women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men and often advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism some key thinkers

and activists are Charlotte bunch Rita Mae brown Adrian rich audre Lorde Marilyn Frye Mary Daly Sheila Jeffries Barbara Smith Pat Parker Margaret Sloane hunter Cheryl Clark Gloria Anzaldua Cherrie Moraga and Monique Wittig although the latter is more commonly associated with the emergence of queer theory lesbian feminism came

together in the early 1970s out of dissatisfaction with second wave feminism and the gay liberation movement in the words of lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffries lesbian feminism emerged as a result of two development lesbians within the wlm women's liberation movement began to create a new distinctively feminist lesbian politics

and lesbians in the glf Gay Liberation Front left to join up with their sisters according to Judy rebek a leading Canadian journalist and political activist for feminism lesbians were and always have been at the heart of the women's movement while their issues were invisible in the same movement

lesbian feminism of color emerged as a response to lesbian feminism thought that failed to incorporate the issues of class and race as sources of oppression along with heterosexuality topic key ideas lesbian feminism much like feminism lesbian and gay studies and queer theory is characterized by the ideas of

contestation and revision at the same time one of the key themes of lesbian feminism is the analysis of heterosexuality as an institution lesbian feminist texts work to denaturalize heterosexuality and based on this de naturalization to explore heterosexuality x' roots in institutions such as patriarchy capitalism and colonialism additionally

lesbian feminism advocates lesbianism as a rational result of alienation and dissatisfaction with these institutions Sheila Jeffries defines lesbian feminism as having seven key themes an emphasis on women's love for one another separatist organizations community and ideas idea that lesbianism is about choice and resistance idea that the personal

is political of social hierarchy a critique of male supremacy which according to Geoffrey's errata sizes inequality lesbian feminist literary critic Bonnie Zimmerman frequently analyzes the language used by writers from within the movement often drawing from autobiographical narratives in the use of personal testimony according to Zimmerman lesbian feminist

texts tend to be expressly nonlinear poetic can even obscure lesbian feminists of color argue for intersectionality in particular the crossings of gender sex class and race as an important component of lesbian feminist thought topic biology choice and social constructionism as outlined above lesbian feminism typically situates lesbianism as

a form of resistance to man-made institutions Cheryl Clark writes in her essay new notes on lesbianism I named myself lesbian because this culture oppresses silences and destroys lesbians even lesbians who don't call themselves lesbians I named myself lesbian because I want to be visible to other black lesbians

I named myself lesbian because I do not subscribe to predatory institutionalized heterosexuality however according to a dictionary of gender studies some lesbians who believe themselves to be born that way considered political lesbians are those who believe lesbianism as a choice based on the institutionalized heterosexuality were appropriating the

term lesbian and not experiencing or speaking out against the oppression that those women experienced indeed it could be argued that lesbian feminism preempted if not laid the groundwork for queer theory to posit sexuality as culturally specific topic separatism lesbian separatism is a form of separatist feminism specific to

lesbians separatism has been considered by lesbians as both a temporary strategy and as a lifelong practice but mostly the latter in separatist feminism lesbianism is posited as a key feminist strategy that enables women to invest their energies in other women creating new space and dialogue about women's relationships

and typically limits their dealings with men lesbian separatism became popular in the 1970s as some lesbians doubted whether mainstream society or even the gay rights movement had anything to offer them in 1977 women including del Martin confronted the North conference of Homa file meaning homosexual organizations about the

relevance of the gay rights movement to the women within it the delegates passed a resolution in favor of women's liberation but del Martin felt they had not done enough in rote if that's all their us an influential 1970 essay in which she decried gay rights organizations as sexist

in the summer of 1971 a lesbian group calling themselves the Furies formed a commune opened two lesbians only where they put out a monthly newspaper the Furies consisted of 12 women aged 18 to 28 all feminists all lesbians all white with three children among them they shared chores

and clothes lived together held some of their money in common and slept on mattresses on a common floor they also started a school to teach women auto and home repair so they would not be dependent on men the newspaper lasted from January 1972 to June 1973 the commune

itself ended in 1972 Charlotte bunch an early member of the Furies viewed separatist feminism as a strategy a first step period or temporary withdrawal from mainstream activism to accomplish specific goals or enhance personal growth other lesbians such as lambda award-winning author Alana Dyke women have chosen separatism as

a lifelong practice in addition to advocating withdrawal from working personal or casual relationships with men the Furies recommended that lesbian separatists relate only with women who cut their ties to male privilege and suggested that as long as women still benefit from heterosexuality receive its privileges and security they

will at some point have to betray their sisters especially lesbian sisters who do not receive those benefits this was part of a larger idea that bunch articulated in learning from lesbian separatism that in a male supremacist Society heterosexuality as a political institution and the practice of separatism as

a way to escape its domination in her 1988 book lesbian ethics towards a new value lesbian philosopher Sarah Lucia Hoagland alludes to lesbian separatism is potential to encourage lesbians to develop healthy community ethics based on shared values Hoagland articulates a distinction originally noted by lesbian separatist author and

anthologized Julia Penelope between a lesbian subculture and a lesbian community membership in the subculture being defined in negative terms by an external hostile culture and membership in the community being based on the values we believe we can enact here Betty Talon believes that lesbian separatism unlike some other

separatist movements is not about the establishment of an independent state it is about the development of an autonomous self-identity in the creation of a strong solid lesbian community lesbian historian Lillian Faye Derman describes the separatist impulses of lesbian feminism which created culture and cultural artifacts as giving love

between women greater visibility in broader culture faye Derman also believes that lesbian feminists who acted to create separatist institutions did so to bring their ideals about integrity nurturing the needy self-determination and equality of labor and rewards into all aspects of institution building and economics the practice of lesbian

separatism sometimes incorporates concepts related to queer nationalism and political lesbianism some individuals who identify as lesbian separatists are also associated with the practice of dynamic paganism the term woman's land has been used in America to describe communities of lesbian separatists elsewhere lesbian feminists have situated female separatism is

quite a mainstream thing and have explored the mythology surrounding it Marilyn fries 1978 essay notes on separatism and power as one such example she posits female separatism as a strategy practiced by all women at some point and present in many feminist projects one might cite women's refuges electoral

quotas or Women's Studies programs she argues that it is only when women practice it self-consciously a separation from men that it is treated with controversy or as she suggests hysteria on the other hand male separatism one might cite gentlemen's clubs labor unions sports teams the military and more

arguably decision-making positions in general is seen as quite a normal even expedient phenomenon still other lesbian feminists put forward a notion of tactical separatism from men arguing for an investing in things like women's sanctuaries and consciousness-raising groups but also exploring everyday practices to which women may temporarily retreat

or practice solitude from men and masculinity Margaret's lone hunter compared lesbian separatism to black separatism in her work making separatist connections the issue is woman identification she stated if lesbian separatism fails it will be because women are so together that we will just exude woman identification wherever we

go but since sexism is much older than racism it seems that we must for now embrace separatism at least psychically for health and consciousness sake this is a revolution not a public relations campaign we must keep reminding ourselves some of the lesbian feminist groups however were skeptical of

separatism as such a prominent black lesbian feminist group the Combahee River collective stated that separatism is not a viable political strategy for them topic the woman identified woman if the founding of the lesbian feminist movement could be pinpointed at a specific moment it would probably be may 1970

when radical lesbians an activist group of 20 lesbians led by lesbian novelist Rita Mae brown took over the Congress to unite women a Women's Conference in New York City uninvited they lined up on stage wearing matching t-shirts inscribed with the words lavender menace and demanded the microphone to

read aloud to an audience of 400 there sa the woman identified woman which laid out the main precepts of their movement later on Adrienne Rich incorporated this concept in her essay compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence in which she unpacks the idea that patriarchy dictates women to be focused

on men or to be men identified women becoming women identified women ie changing the focus of attention and energy from men to women is a way to resist the patriarchal oppression contrary to some popular beliefs about man hating butch dykes lesbian feminist theory does not support the concept

of female masculinity proponents like Sheila Jeffries 2003 to 13 have argued that all forms of masculinity are problematic this is one of the principal areas in which lesbian feminism differs from queer theory perhaps best summarized by Judith Halberstam s clip that if Sheila Jefferies didn't exist Camille Paglia

would have had to invent her the overwhelming majority of the activists and scholars associated with lesbian feminist theory have been women however there are a few exceptions for instance political theorist Eugene Lewis whose critique of patriarchal society explores the parallels between the theatrical mockery of women in the

works of CS Lewis no relation an underground male prostitution rings describes himself as a lesbian feminist in the ideological sense topic woman's culture Waman along with women and woman were terms created by alliances within the lesbian feminist movement to distinguish them from men and masculine or fellow NGO

centric language the term women was seen as derivative of men and ultimately symbolized the prescriptive nature of women's oppression a new vocabulary emerged more generally sometimes referencing lost or in spoken matriarchal civilizations Amazonian warriors ancient especially Greek goddesses sometimes parts of the female anatomy and often references to

the natural world it was frequently remarked that the movement had nothing to go on no knowledge of its roots nor histories of lesbianism to drawn hence the emphasis on consciousness raising and carving out new arguably gynocentric cultures salsa soul sisters third world women Inc organization United lesbian feminists

and womanists of color pick lesbians and mainstream feminism as a critical perspective lesbian feminism is perhaps best defined in opposition to mainstream feminism and queer theory it has certainly been argued that mainstream feminism has been guilty of homophobia in its failure to integrate sexuality as a fundamental category

of gendered inquiry and its treatment of lesbianism as a separate issue in this respect Adrienne Rich's 1980 classic text compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence is instructive in one of the landmarks in lesbian feminism topic influence within feminist organizations topic National Organization for Women USA lesbians have been active

in the mainstream American feminist movement the first time lesbian concerns were introduced into the National Organization for Women now was in 1969 when Ivy batini an open lesbian who was then president of the New York Chapter of now held a public forum titled is lesbianism a feminist issue

however now President Betty Friedan was against lesbian participation in the movement in 1969 she referred to growing lesbian visibility as a lavender menace and fired openly lesbian newsletter editor Rita Mae brown and in 1970 she engineered the expulsion of lesbians including Ivy batini from Mao's New York chapter

in response on the first evening when 400 feminists were assembled in the auditorium at the 1970 Congress to unite women a group of 20 women wearing t-shirts that read lavender menace came to the front of the room and faced the audience one of the women then read the

group's declaration the woman identified woman the first major lesbian feminist statement the group who later named themselves radical as be ins were among the first to challenge the heterosexism of heterosexual feminists and to describe lesbian experience in positive terms in 1971 now passed a resolution that proclaimed a

woman's right to her own person includes the right to define and express her own sexuality and to choose her own lifestyle as well as a conference resolution stating that forcing lesbian mothers to stay in marriages or to live a secret existence in an effort to keep their children

was unjust that year now also committed to offering legal and moral support in a test case involving child custody rights of lesbian mothers in 1973 the now taskforce on sexuality and lesbianism was established del Martin was the first open lesbian elected to now and del Martin and Phyllis

Lyon were the first lesbian couple to join the organization topic old lesbians organizing for change in 2014 old lesbians organizing for change o loc issued an anti sexism statement which states men run the world and women are supposed to serve according to the belief that men are superior

to women which is patriarchy patriarchy is the system by which men's universal power is maintained and enforced oh loc works toward the end of patriarchy and the liberation of all women topic influence within governmental institutions topic national plan of action of the 1977 National Women's Conference USA in

November 1977 the National Women's Conference issued a national plan of action which stated in part Congress state and local legislatures should enact legislation to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual and affectional preference in areas including but not limited to employment housing public accommodations credit public facilities government

funding and the military state legislators should reform their penal codes or repeal state laws that restrict private sexual behavior between consenting adults state legislators should enact legislation that would prohibit consideration of sexual or affectional orientation as a factor in any judicial determination of child custody or visitation rights

rather child custody cases should be evaluated solely on the merits of which party is the better parent without regard to that person's sexual and affectional orientation topic feminist culture Canadian photographer Deborah bright created a series called dream girls which challenged mainstream gender sex identities that the Hollywood industry

in the 1980s chose to propagate topic tensions with queer theory the emergence of queer theory in the 1990s built upon certain principles of lesbian feminism including the critique of compulsory heterosexuality the understanding of gender is defined in part by heterosexuality and the understanding of sexuality as institutional instead

of personal despite this queer theory is largely set in opposition to lesbian feminism whereas lesbian feminism as traditionally critical of BDSM which FEM identities and relationships transgenderism transsexuality pornography and prostitution queer theory tends to embrace them queer theorists embrace gender fluidity and subsequently have critiqued lesbian feminism as

having an essentialist understanding of gender that runs counter to their stated aims lesbian feminists have critiqued queer theory as implicitly male-oriented and a recreation of the male-oriented Gay Liberation Front that lesbian feminists initially sought refuge from queer theorists have countered by pointing out that the majority of the

most prominent queer theorists are feminists and many including Judith Butler Judith halberstrom and Gail Rubin are lesbians berry 2002 suggests that in choosing between these possible alignments lesbian feminism and/or queer theory one must answer whether it is gender or sexuality that is the more fundamental in personal identity

topic views on BDSM because of its focus on equality in sexual relationships lesbian feminism has traditionally been opposed to any form of BDSM that involve perpetuation of gender stereotypes this view is challenged in the late 1970s most notably by the Simoes group Simoes was a SAN francisco-based feminist

organization focused on BDSM Simoes members felt strongly that their way of practicing BDSM was entirely compatible with feminism and held that the kind of feminist sexuality advocated by women against violence in pornography and media was conservative and puritanical in contrast many black lesbian feminists have spoken out against

the practice of BDSM as racist according to scholars Darlene Pagano Karyn Sims and rose Mason sadomasochism in particular is a practice that often lacks sensitivity to the black female experience as it can be historically linked to similar forms of sexual violence and dominance enacted against black female slaves

pick views on bisexuality bisexuality is rejected by some lesbian feminists as being a reactionary and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism a bisexual woman filed a lawsuit against the lesbian feminist magazine common lives lesbian lives alleging discrimination against bisexuals when her submission was not published a number of women

who were at one time involved in lesbian feminist activism came out as bisexual after realizing their attractions two men a widely studied example of lesbian bisexual conflict within feminism was the Northampton pride march during the years between 1989 and 1993 where many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals

should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism common lesbian feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were deluded and desperate however tensions between bisexual feminists

and lesbian feminists have eased since the 1990s as bisexual women have become more accepted within the feminist community nevertheless some lesbian feminists such as Julie bindle are still critical of bisexuality bindle has described female bisexuality as a fashionable trend being promoted due to sexual hedonism and questioned whether

bisexuality even exists she has also made tongue-in-cheek comparisons of bisexuals to Cat Fanciers and devil worshippers lesbian feminist Sheila Jeffries writes in the lesbian heresy 1993 that while many feminists are comfortable working alongside gay men they are uncomfortable interacting with bisexual men Jeffries states that while gay men

are unlikely to sexually harass women bisexual men are just as likely to be troublesome to women as heterosexual men in contrast by any other name 1991 an anthology edited by Loren Hutchins and Loni Kaahumanu considered one of the seminal books in the history of the modern bisexual rights

movement contains among other things the piece bisexuality the best thing that ever happened to lesbian feminism by Beth Elliot topic views on transgender people though lesbian feminists views vary there is a specific lesbian feminist Canon which rejects transgenderism transsexuals and transvestites positing trans people is at best gender

dupes are functions of a discourse on mutilation or at worst shoring up support for traditional and violent gender norms this is a position marked by intense controversy Sheila Jefferies summarized the arguments on this topic in unpacking queer politics 2003 in 1979 lesbian feminist Janice Raymond published the transsexual

Empire the making of the shemale controversial even today it looked at the role of transsexualism particularly psychological and surgical approaches to it in reinforcing traditional gender stereotypes the ways in which the medical psychiatric complex is medicalizing gender identity and the social and political context that has been instrumental

in making transsexual treatment and surgery and normal and therapeutic medicine raymond maintains that transsexualism is based on the patriarchal myths of male mothering and making of woman according to man's image she claims this is done in order to colonize feminist identification culture politics and sexuality adding all transsexuals

rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact appropriating this body for themselves transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women so that they seem non-invasive these views on Trent sexuality have been criticized by many in the LGBTQ and feminist communities as

transphobic and constituting hate speech against transsexual men and women in her book janice raymond includes sections on sandy stone a trans woman who had worked as a sound engineer for olivia records and christy Barsky accusing both of creating divisive 'no sin women's spaces these writings have been heavily

criticized as personal attacks on these individuals lesbian feminism is sometimes associated with opposition to sex reassignment surgery some lesbian feminist analyses see sex reassignment surgery as a form of violence akin to BDSM topic lesbian of color feminism feminism among lesbians of color emerged as a response to the

texts produced by white lesbian feminist authors in the late 1970s typically lesbian feminism at the time failed to recognize issues related to intersectionality between race gender and class apart from this lesbian feminists of color addressed the relationship between feminism as a movement and ideology of cultural nationalism or

racial pride as well as the differences found in the prevalent texts among the most influential lesbian feminists of color are audre Lorde Gloria Anzaldua Cherrie Moraga Barbara Smith Pat Parker Kate Russian Margaret Sloane hunter Cheryl Clark and og curiel audre Lorde addressed how these movements should intersect in

her 1979 speech the Masters tools will never dismantle the Masters house in particular she stated as women we have been taught either to ignore our differences or to view them as causes for separation and suspicion rather than as forces for change without community there is no liberation only

the most vulnerable and temporary armistice between an individual and her oppression the community must not mean a shedding of our differences nor the pathetic pretense that these differences do not exist topic black lesbian feminism black lesbian feminism originates from black feminism and the civil rights movement in the

beginning of the 1970s kyla ideas story a contemporary black lesbian feminist scholar defines black lesbian feminism as the thought and praxis of an intersectional gendered and sexual analysis of the world's relationship to queer women of color specifically both sis and trans the prominent authors who were at the

roots of black lesbian feminism include audre Lorde Barbara Smith Pat Parker Kate Russian Doris Davenport Cheryl Clark and Margaret's lone hunter black lesbian feminism emerged as a venue to address the issue of racism in the mainstream feminist movement which was described as white middle-class and predominantly heterosexual according

to a 1979 statement by barbara Smith the reason racism as a feminist issue is easily explained by the inherent definition of feminism witches the political theory and practice to free all women women of color working-class women poor women physically challenged women lesbians old women as well as white

economically privileged heterosexual women later in 1984 she extended her views on black lesbian feminism mission to a movement committed to fighting sexual racial economic and heterosis exist oppression not to mention one which opposes imperialism anti-semitism the oppressions visited upon the physically disabled the old and the young at

the same time that it challenges militarism and imminent nuclear destruction as the very opposite of narrow most prominent black lesbian feminists were writers rather than scholars and expressed their position in literary ways all edom a black states that unlike black feminism in 1977 the position of black lesbian

feminism was not as clear as the position of black feminism and was an illusion in the text apart from this the position of black lesbian feminists was expressed in their interviews and public speeches as such in a 1980 interview published in American poetry review audre Lorde's stated that

uh true feminist deals out of a lesbian consciousness whether or not she ever sleeps with women as well as that all black women whether they admit it or not are lesbians because they are raised in the remnants of a basically matriarchal society and are still oppressed by patriarchy

Pat Parker's work reflected the oppression she suffered and observed in lives of other women in her poem have you ever tried to hide Parker calls out racism in the white feminist movement in her multiple works including the poem woman slaughter she drew attention to the violence black women

experienced in their lives among others parker defended the idea of complex identities and stated that for her revolution will happen when all elements of her identity can come along topic Combahee River collective the Combahee River collective as a boston-based black feminist group that was formed as a radical

alternative to the national black feminist organization and BFO founded by Margaret's lone hunter in 1973 for the organization's members and BFO lacked attention to the issues of sexuality and economic oppression the collective united the women that were dissatisfied with racism in white feminist movement and sexism in civil

rights movement the name of the organization alludes to the Underground Railroad Combahee River raid that happened in 1863 under Harriet Tubman's leadership and freed 750 slaves the Combahee River collective issued a statement in 1977 that described the organization's vision as being opposed to all forms of oppression including

sexuality gender identity class disability and age oppression later incorporated in the concept of intersectionality that shaped the conditions on black women's lives in its statement the Combahee River collective defined itself as a left-wing organization leaning toward socialism and anti-imperialism the organization also claimed that unlike some white feminist

groups or NBF oh the collective members are in solidarity with progressive black men and do not advocate the fractionalization and emphasizing that the stance of lesbian separatism is not a viable political analysis or strategy other organizations under the stance of black lesbian feminism include salsa soul sisters formed

in 1974 in New York City and considered to be the oldest black bez bein feminist organization and Sapphire Sappho's formed in 1979 in Washington DC topic visual artworks the more recent art form used to express black lesbian feminist ideas as film in particular Ayesha shahida Simmons an award-winning

black lesbian feminist made no the rape documentary 2006 a documentary that explores how rape is used as a weapon of homophobia for Simmons a sexual assault survivor herself the film was also an exploration of how rape impacted her black feminist lesbian journey topic Chicana lesbian feminism you Chicano

lesbian feminism emerged from the Chicano feminism movement in the late 1970s and early 1980s during this time Chicano feminism began to form as a social movement aimed to improve the position of Chicanos in American society Chacon is separated from the Chicano Movement began drawing their own political agendas

and started to question their traditional female roles specifically Chicano feminists see also Chicano literature started addressing the forces that affected them as women of color and fighting for social equality in with her machete in her hand reading Chicano lesbians 2009 the first monograph dedicated to the work of

Chicano lesbians Catriona Rueda a squee belle stated Chicano lesbians are central to understanding Chicano communities theories and feminism's similarly to black lesbian feminists Chicano lesbian feminists use literature as a way of naming themselves expressing their ideas and reclaiming their experiences flagged with a number of accusations they are

accused of being lesbians of betraying society by denying men of their reproductive role and of betraying their Chicana identity by adhering to feminist and lesbian ideologies both things considered by Chicano culture as white notions the key Chicano lesbian feminist thinkers include Cherrie Moraga Gloria Anzaldua Lydia tirado white

Alicia Gaspar de Alba Emma Perez Carla Trujillo Monica Palacios Ana Castillo Natasha Lopez and Norma Larkin in the feminist anthology this bridge called my back writings by radical women of color moraga and anzaldúa described the Chicano lesbian feminist mission as follows we attempt to bridge the contradictions in

our experience we are the colored in a white feminist movement we are the feminists among the people of our culture we are often the lesbians among the straight we do this bridging by naming ourselves and by telling our stories in our own words one of the foundational concepts

of Chicano lesbian feminist movement as theory in the flesh which us flesh and blood experiences of the woman of color specifically as described by moraga and Anzaldua a theory in flesh means one where the typical Riau of our lives our skin color the land or concrete we grew

up on our sexual belongings all fused to create a political born out of necessity quote in Moraga article agüero she continues making reference to the theory in the flesh it wasn't until I acknowledged and confronted my own lesbianism in the flesh that my heartfelt identification with an empathy

for my mother's oppression due to being poor and educated Chicana was realized furthermore this theory incorporates the ideas of finding strength in and celebrating each other's difference as well as reinterpreting the history by shaping new myths and lays in a process of naming themselves but also naming the

enemies within oneself to break down paradigms as moraga explains in her prose loving in the war years lo que nunca Paso por su Slaby 'as in this country lesbianism as a poverty as as being Brown as as being a woman as is being just plain poor the danger

lies in ranking the oppressions the danger lies in failing to acknowledge the specificity of the oppression the danger lies in attempting to deal with oppression purely from a theoretical base without an emotional heartfelt grappling with the source of our own oppression without naming the enemy within ourselves and

outside of us no authentic non-hierarchical connection among oppressed groups can take place topic genres and main themes Chicano lesbian feminists challenged traditional forms of knowledge production and introduced new ways of knowledge creation through new forms of writing many Chicano lesbian feminists use what Teresa de leur eighties named

fiction theory a formally experimental critical and lyrical autobiographical and theoretically conscious practice of writing in the feminine that crosses genre boundaries poetry and prose verbal and visual modes narrative and cultural criticism and in states new correlations between signs and meanings they combines on ruse such as autobiography poetry

theory personal Diaries or imaginary interviews at the same time Chicano lesbian feminists today navigate and struggle across a variety of discursive contexts as activists academics feminists and artists through their literature and art Chicano lesbian feminists explore their body lived experiences a fundamental aspect in the construction of lesbian

identity they reclaim the idea of the real body and the physical aspect of it Chicano lesbian feminists bring into the discussion the conflicts with the concept of la familia the new familias they create and their right to choose their own sexuality Martha Barrera writes we are just as

valid a Familia as we would be if she were a brown man who I married in the Catholic Church at the same time they tried to find reconciliation with their Familia one Eva M sanchez writes my father wanted me to go to work my grandmother wanted me to

speak more Spanish she couldn't speak English I wanted to make a living selling popsicles on my 1948 Cushman scooter nothing turned out like they wanted but my mother did say if you want to be with a woman kala Haise as long as you're happy Chicano lesbian feminists confront

their lesbian identity with their Chicano identity this constitutes a central aspect of Chicano lesbian literature Rene M Martinez expresses her impossibility to reconcile the two identities being a Chicano and a lesbian my parents daughter and a lesbian alive in a lesbian lesbianism would sever me from everything that

counted in my life homosexuality the ultimate betrayal of my Mexican heritage was only for white people moraga writes out the woman who defies her role is purported to be a traitor to her race by contributing to the genocide of her people in short even if the defiant woman

is not a lesbian she is purported to be one for like the lesbian in the Chicano imagination she is una Malan chesta like the Malin J of Mexican history she is corrupted by foreign influences which threatened to destroy her people lesbianism can be construed by the race then

as the Chicana being used by the white man even if the man never lays a hand on her the choice is never seen as her own homosexuality is his disease with which he sinisterly infects third-world people men and women alike topic see also feminism movements and ideologies heterosexism

lesbian lesbo phobia lesbian feminist circle lesbian science-fiction list of lesbian periodicals journals newsletters and magazines past and present Sappho was a write on woman topic references topic further reading anonymous relays bein 71 political lesbians and the women's liberation movement Barrett Ruth Edie 2016 female erasure what you need

to know about gender politics war on women the female sex and human rights 1st ed California titled time publishing ISBN nine seven eight oh nine nine seven one four six seven oh seven bindle Julie the first of July 2005 the ugly side of Beauty the guardian interview with

Sheila Jeffries Cody Ali December 18 2016 who's killing the women's land movement vice Jean Damon aka Barbara Greer 1970 the least of these the minority who screams haven't yet been heard sisterhood is powerful daughters of Bilitis 1971 the lesbian newsletter tatyana de la tierra 1991 to 1994 esto

no tiene hambre Tatyana de la tierra 1995 1996 con mozian revista y red revolutionary Adela's beyond his Latinas Didem sarah the 11th of July 2018 why were lesbians protesting at pride because the LGBT Coalition leaves women behind New Statesman Andrea Dworkin 1975 lesbian pride Andrea Dworkin 1977 the

simple story of a lesbian girl hood Fleming Pippa July 3rd 2018 the gender identity movement undermines lesbians The Economist the furies collective the Furies January 1972 until mid-1972 Sally Miller gearheart 1972 the lesbian and God the Father or all the church needs as a good lay on its

side koukin Claire February twenty-second 2017 let's be honest about queer politics erasing lesbian women sister outrider homegirls 1983 a collection of black lesbian and black feminist writing Carla J 2003 confessions of a worrywart ruminations on a lesbian feminist overview sisterhood is forever the women's anthology for a new

millennium Jill Johnston 1973 lesbian nation the feminist solution kerkoff James the 16th of May 2018 the silencing of the lesbians the spectator lesbian group 1975 1975 conference report del Martin 1970 if that's all they're us del Martin and Phyllis Lyon 1972 lesbian woman the cue Kathleen a Johnson

growl Brenda cher Ben Raphael EDS 2014 the June L Mazur lesbian archives making invisible histories visible PDF UCLA Center for the Study of women Regents of the University of California ISBN nine seven eight oh six one five nine nine oh eight four two Morris bonny J 2016 the

disappearing L erasure of lesbian spaces and culture first ed SUNY press ISBN nine seven eight one four three eight four six one seven seven nine Oban Wayne Ashley April 18 2016 why I'm a lesbian not queer lesbians over everything oh LOC Boston old lesbians organizing for change 2016

erasing lesbians the proud trust docx file format can be converted to dot PDF radical lesbians 1970 the woman identified woman notes from the third year and a ruling 1904 what interest is the women's movement have in solving the homosexual problem Joanna Russ 1972 when it changed Joanna Russ

1975 the female man Martha Shelley 1970 notes of a radical lesbian sisterhood is powerful Adrienne Catherine wing 2003 critical race feminism womankind 1972 lesbian mothers and their children topic external links lesbian feminism by Elise G near GLBTQ encyclopedia archive 1970s lesbian feminism at department of women's studies ohio

state university archive radical women in gainesville collection at george a Smathers libraries University of Florida Sara Lucia Hoagland website at Northeastern Illinois University archive

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